The skill of Reinforcement is one of the major skills of microteaching practiced in Teacher Training Institution. You have to know properly how and when to use this skill while teaching. Also, everyone has to make their micro-teaching for the skill of reinforcement for each subject.
The Skill of Reinforcement – Components and Their Use
The skill of reinforcement is a skill on the part of the teacher to use positive reinforces so that the pupils participate to the maximum. While practicing this skill the teacher will use more and more positive reinforces and decrease the use of negative reinforces.
Positive reinforcement means strengthening desirable behaviour. It increases pupils’ participation in the class. Positive reinforcers are those behaviours of the teacher which encourage the pupils to participate more and more. They generate a pleasing effect on the pupils that is they bring about reinforcement (positive) in pupils behaviour. Negative reinforcement means the weakling of undesirable behaviour. It decreases pupils’ participation in the class. Negative reinforces are those behaviours of the teacher which discourage the pupils to participate. They have a punishing effect (unpleasant) on the pupil.
The skill of reinforcement involves the use of positive reinforces more and more and decreases the use of negative reinforces so that the pupils participate to the maximum.
Ten components of the Skill of Reinforcement are –
- Positive Verbal Reinforcement
- Extra Verbal Reinforcement
- Non Verbal Cues
- Writing Pupils’ Answer on Blackboard
- Proximity Reinforcement
- Contact Reinforcement
- Token Reinforcement
- Negative Verbal Reinforcement
- Negative Non-verbal Reinforcement
- No Reinforcement
Explanation of Each Component of The Skill Of Reinforcement
Positive verbal Reinforcement:
Here a teacher gives positive reinforcement through various verbal (with words) expressions. The teacher accept the feelings of the pupils by saying, ‘well, I understand’, ‘well done’, ‘very good’, ‘right’, ‘yes’, ‘correct’, ‘fine’, ‘excellent’, ‘splendid’ etc. Sometime simply say, ‘I like what you say/doing.’, ‘continue’, ‘go ahead with what you are saying’, ‘carry on’, etc.
Extra verbal cues:
Sometime the teacher can be used extra verbal cues or expressions such as ‘hm-hm’, ‘uh-uh’, etc.
Non verbal cues:
Teacher can use certain nonverbal cues like nodding of head, smiling, moving towards the responding pupil, keeping eyes on the pupils, giving ear to the pupil indicating that attention is being paid to the pupils’ words or any other nonverbal action indicating pleasure at the pupils’ responses.
Writing pupils’ answer on the blackboard:
Teacher should write the answers on the blackboard which is responded by the pupils. Teacher should write only that answer which is specific one and have relevancy with the content.
Proximity reinforcement refers to the teacher’s movement towards the responding student. These will motivate the student to answer the question.
Teacher should motivate the students by giving contact reinforcement.
Token reinforcement involves awarding points or tokens for appropriate behaviour. These rewards have little value in themselves but can be exchanged for something of value.
Negative verbal reinforcement:
Teacher should always avoid painful, threatening or punishing verbal expressions towards pupils. This type of reinforcement affects learning negatively and decreases the motivation of the pupils. Teacher should avoid discouraging expressions such as ‘ I don’t like what you are doing.’, ‘do something else’, ‘nonsense’, ‘you are not good’, ‘no’, ‘wrong’, ‘incorrect’, ‘stop it’, ‘that’s not’ etc.
Negative Non-verbal Reinforcement:
This is brought out using such behaviours as frowning, moving away from the responding pupil, keeping eye on the pupil with discouraging looks, hard and disapproving stares, not looking at the responding pupil, trapping foot impatiently and walking around etc. teacher should be conscious of such behaviours and avoid them as far as possible, if he/she want to use the skill of reinforcement effectively.
No reinforcement means when teacher shows neither a positive reinforcement nor a negative reinforcement towards students responds.