If you are searching for a short note on the educational ideas of Sankardeva, then you are at the very right place. In this post, you will get a short note on the educational ideas of Srimanta Sankardeva for B.Ed. trainees or students. These notes are for the paper Foundations of Education.
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Short Note on Educational Ideas of Sannkardeva for B.Ed.
This is a short note for B.Ed. students or trainees regarding the educational ideas of Srimanta Sankardeva. This note on the educational views of Sankardeva is for the Foundations of Education paper which is under B.Ed. curriculum.
Before discussing the educational ideas of Sankardeva, let us discuss the philosophical principles of Srimanta Sankardeva.
Philosophical Principles of Srimanta Sankardeva:
Sankardeva was not a philosopher, nor did he endeavors to evolve a new philosophy. Nevertheless, his literacy work points out the fact that he was steeped in the lore of Hindu Philosophy. The philosophical ideas of Sankardeva can be pointed out as follows,-
In the metaphysical world, Sankardeva holds a non-dualistic standpoint. This explains the absence of dual images in his religion such as Radha-Krishna as Chaitanya, Gopi-Krishna as Vallabhacharyya, and Lakshmi-Narayana as Vishnu, etc.
2. Three kinds of substance:
Sankardeva accepts three kinds of substance as ultimate- matter (Acit), soul (Cit), and God (Isvara). According to him, the subtle jivas and the subtle material powers of the universe from which both the conscious and unconscious parts of the universe spring forth.
3. Concept of Atma:
Atma is immutable and immortal, it was neither born in the past nor in the present. Birth and death are the characteristic features of the body and out of the body, a fresh body emerges. Though associated with the body, Atma is yet distinct from the body.
4. Concept of God:
- God is infinite and indeterminate.
- God is the prime of the universe.
- The universe has its being in Him and returns to Him.
- God is the first and final cause of creation.
- God is Nirguna, Nirakara and Chattanya.
- According to Sankardeva, God is the absolute reality.
5. Incarnation (Avatara):
Sankardeva believed in incarnations of God because his unmanifested God may be brought to show manifestations of virtue of devotion. God descends on this world from time to time in order to redeem the world.
6. Krishna as the ideal divinity:
Krishna is regarded by Sankardeva as the highest, best, and most ideal divinity. In Sankardeva’s view, bhakti to Krishna is the realization of the Nirguna(formless, non-dual) Param Brahma through the Gunas of Lord Krishna.
7. Concept of Liberation (Moksha):
According to Sankardeva, liberation is possible only through the realization of God. Sankardeva is of the view that liberation can be attained even while alive, which is called Jivan-mukti. True knowledge destroys all merit and demerit, and so in the jivanmukta man holds his body only through the will of God.
Sankardeva maintained that Bhaktimarg is the one and only way to realize God. In this Bhakata sees the Lord in everything in the world and finds Him revealing Himself in the form of love.
9. Bhakti as superior to Mukti:
Sankardeva regards bhakti as superior to Mukti. Bhakti is also described as being itself the emancipation (Mukti). In Bhakti-Ratnakar, Sankardeva mentions that through the state of liberation is all happiness, yet bhakti is superior to Mukti.
10. Qualifications of Bhakta:
Sankardeva has prescribed certain qualifications necessary for a real bhakta. He must possess the qualities of sympathy, forgiveness, the softness of heart, and complete mastery over his passions. He seemed to have laid more emphasis on the control of the senses.
Also Read: Educational Ideas of John Dewey
Sankardeva’s Educational Ideas in Broad Aspect of Education
Srimanta Sankardeva’s teaching was unique in several aspects. He derived the principles of education after much contemplation and offered a systematic line of thought to his discipline.
The educational ideas of Sankardeva in the broad aspect of education, that is regarding Aims of Education, Method of Teaching, Curriculum of Education, Teacher, and Disciple is given below.
Sankardeva’s Views on Aims of Education:
a) Exaltation of human personality:
Through this aim, Sankardeva wants to exalt human personality from human to moral human beings. Education should help the individual to adopt that perfect pattern.
b) Universal education:
Education should be universal because all human beings are equally the children of God. It should be universal without any distinction of caste, creed, color, or social status.
c) Development of inventive and creative power:
Humans should change and modify his/her physical environment according to his/her needs and purposes through their inventive and creative skills. Through this aim, Sankardeva wanted to develop the innate and creative powers of individuals.
d) Acquisition and enrichment of cultural environment:
Man himself is the creator of the cultural environment. Therefore Sankardeva emphasized that each child should enter into the cultural heritage of mankind which is free from the limitations of the material environment, according to the best of his capacity.
e) Development of moral sense:
One of the important aim of education is the development of moral sense of the child, so that he may be able to distinguish between the right and the wrong. Education should develop the will power of the child so that he may be able to follow the good and reject the evil.
The function of education is to enable the individual to realize the unity within himself and to establish a harmony between his nature and the ultimate nature of universe.
g) Language development:
Through the aim of education Sankardeva supported the language development.. He used three languages in his writings i.e. Sanskrit, Brajabuli and Assamese, so that local people could understand.
Educational Ideas of Sankardeva’s Regarding Curriculum:
Sankardeva’s views regarding the curriculum of education are discussed below –
- Curriculum should be addressed from the domain of ideas and ideals. Sankardeva gave preference to the experience of the whole humane race.
- Curriculum should provide training on cultivation of the intellectual, moral and aesthetic activities.
- For intellectual advancement language, literature should be included.
- For aesthetic and moral development fine arts, dramas, poetry, ethics and religion should be included.
- Physical activities, gymnastics etc for the physical as well as mental developments of the students.
Sankardeva’s Views on the Method of Teaching:
The educational ideas of Srimanta Sankardeva regarding the method of teaching are discussed below. According to Sankardeva following method should be used in educating a child.
- Sankardeva propagated nama-dharma as practical method of bhakti.
- Sankardeva did not advocate any special method of teaching, but followed the traditional method during his teaching.
- The various teaching techniques used by Sankardeva and his followers in educating the people are-
- (a) Lecture method
- (b) Discussion method
- (c) Questioning method
- (d)Listening and
- (d)various activities.
Sankardeva’s Views on Discipline:
- Sankardeva was not in favour of free discipline. It may lead the child astray.
- Strict discipline is essential for self-realization.
- Sankardeva was not fully against freedom. For him freedom is a well deserved reward for the youth who has learnt to live under self imposed regulations and disciplines.
- He laid more emphasis on control of senses.
Sankardeva’s Educational Ideas Regarding Teachers:
- Teacher occupies highest position in the society.
- The teacher is the person who has attained self-realization.
- The teacher is a practical man and leads an ideal and virtuous life.
- The teacher is a friend, philosopher and guide to his/her students.
- The teacher is the source of inspiration for his/her pupils to follow his/her example. The teacher was called as ‘Guru’.